The High Resolution printing routine allows standard sized characters to be positioned anywhere on the screen.
There is a an example program that uses this at the end of the page.
- x is the x value in pixel co-ordinates
- y is the y value in pixel co-ordinates
- character is the memory address of the UDG style bytes for the character being printed.
- To print standard characters, use the address of the character from the ROM table.
- attribute is the attribute byte value (As you'd get from the ATTR function)
- over is 0 or 1, and chooses whether to print in OVER 0 or OVER 1 mode.
Prints the character to the screen at the given pixel co-ordinates.
NOTE: The ZX Spectrum's attribute system is encoded into the hardware as a 32 character grid. HRPrint does its best, but changing the paper/bright/flash colour from the background is likely to look imperfect as the attribute blocks cannot line up well with the character printed unless it overlaps - as a result, the colour of attribute squares nearby is likely to be changed.
This code is too large to place in full, since it requires Britlion's Screen and Rotate Tables, and this wiki does not allow attachments. Please download HRPrintFast from the forum posting: http://www.boriel.com/forum/how-to-tutorials/topic493.html
SUB HRPrintFast (x AS UBYTE, y AS UBYTE, char AS UINTEGER, attribute AS UBYTE, overprint AS UBYTE) 'High res Printing, based on code produced, with thanks, by Turkwel over on the WOS boards. 'Brought to ZX Basic by Britlion, June 2010. ASM ld a,(IX+13) ; Get overprint value AND a ; zero? JR Z,HRP_No_Over LD a,182 JP HRP_Change_Code HRP_No_Over: XOR A ; faster than LD a,0 HRP_Change_Code: LD (HRPOver1),a LD (HRPOver2),a ld b,(IX+7) ld c,(IX+5) push BC ; SAVE our co-ordinates. ;print_char: ld d,(IX+09) inc d dec d jr z, HRPrint_From_Charset ld e,(IX+08) jp HR_Print HRPrint_From_Charset: ld de,(23606) ld h,0 ld l,(IX+8) ; character add hl,hl add hl,hl add hl,hl add hl,de HR_Print: ;call HRPat ;PUSH HL EX DE,HL ; SAVE HL out in DE LD H, HRPScreenTables/256 LD L,B LD A,(HL) INC H LD L,(HL) LD H,A LD A,C SRL A SRL A SRL A ADD A,L LD L,A EX DE,HL ; swap HL AND DE Back ;convert the Y AND X pixel values TO the correct Screen Address - Address in DE ld a,8 ;set counter TO 8 - Bytes of Character Data TO put down HRPrint0: push af ;save off Counter ;ld a,b ;cp 192 ;jr c,HRprint1 ;pop af ;jp HRPrintEnd ;don't print character if > 191 - off the bottom of the screen - restore AF and exit Print routine ;[this can be REMoved IF you are keeping tight control of your Y values] HRprint1: push hl push de push de ;save off Address of Character Data, Screen Address, Screen Address ld a,c AND 7 ld d,a ;get lowest 3 bits of Screen address ;ld e,255 ;set up E with the Mask TO use - 11111111b = All On ld a,(hl) jr nz,HRprint2 ;get a BYTE of Character Data TO put down - but ignore the following Mask shifting ;if the the X value is on an actual Character boundary i.e. there's no need to shift anything ; rrca ; srl e ; dec d ; jp nz,HRprint2 ld e,0 jp HRprint3 HRprint2: ;Rotate the Character Data BYTE D times - AND Shift the Mask BYTE AS well, forcing Zeroes into the ;Left hand side. The Mask will be used TO split the Rotated Character Data OVER a Character boundary ; New version: Grab into DE, the split rotation values. LD E,A ; Put our working BYTE safe LD A,D ; Grab our number of rotates EX DE,HL ; SAVE HL DEC A ; decrease so 1->0 SLA A ; Multiply by 2 because we have double tables. ADD A, RotateTables/256 ; Add in the base FOR rotate tables. LD H,A ; put it into our lookup. LD A,(HL) ; get high BYTE INC H LD L,(HL) ; get low BYTE LD H,A EX DE,HL ; put result in DE, AND restore HL. HRprint3: pop hl ;POP one of the Screen Addresses (formerly in DE) into HL ;ld d,a ;ld a,e ;AND d ld a,d ; get our first BYTE HRPOver1: OR (hl) ld (hl),a ;take the Rotated Character Data, mask it with the Mask BYTE AND the OR it with what's already on the Screen, ;this takes care of the first part of the BYTE ;[REMove the OR (HL) IF you just want a straight write rather than a merge] inc l ld a,l AND 31 jr z,HRprint4 ;IncREMent the Screen Address AND check TO see IF it's at the end of a line, ;if so THEN there's no need to put down the second part of the Byte ld a,e ;cpl ;AND d HRPOver2: OR (hl) ld (hl),a ;Similar TO the first BYTE, we need TO Invert the mask with a CPL so we can put down the second part of the BYTE ;in the NEXT Character location ;[again, REMove the OR (HL) IF you just want a straight write rather than a merge] HRprint4: pop de inc d inc b ;get the Screen Address back into DE, incREMent the MSB so it points the the Address immediately below ;it AND IncREMent the Y value in B AS well ld a,b AND 7 ;call z,HRPat jr nz, HRPatSkip EX DE,HL ; SAVE HL out in DE LD H, ScreenTables/256 LD L,B LD A,(HL) INC H LD L,(HL) LD H,A LD A,C SRL A SRL A SRL A ADD A,L LD L,A EX DE,HL ; swap HL AND DE Back HRPatSkip: ;now check IF the Y value has gone OVER a Character Boundary i.e. we will need TO recalculate the Screen ;Address IF we've jumped from one Character Line to another - messy but necessary especially for lines 7 and 15 pop hl inc hl ;get the Address of the Character Data back AND incREMent it ready FOR the NEXT BYTE of data pop af dec a jp nz,HRPrint0 ;get the Counter value back, decREMent it AND GO back FOR another write IF we haven't reached the end yet ; jp HRPrintAttributes (No need TO jump around this now) HRPrintAttributes: POP BC ; recover our X-Y co-ordinates. ld d,0 ld a,(IX+11) ; attribute AND a jp z, HRPrintEnd ; IF attribute=0, THEN we don't do attributes. ld e,a ; pass TO e ;transfer Attribute BYTE TO e FOR easier use ld a,b cp 192 jp nc, HRPrintEnd ;check Y position AND EXIT IF off bottom of screen push bc ;save off Y AND X values FOR later AND 248 ld h,22 ld l,a add hl,hl add hl,hl srl c srl c srl c ld b,d add hl,bc ;calculate the correct Attribute Address FOR the Y\X values ld (hl),e ;set the Attribute - this is ALWAYS set no matter what the valid Y\X values used pop bc ;get the Y AND X values back into BC ;call print_attribute2 ;call the subroutine TO see IF an adjacent Horizontal Attribute needs TO be set print_attributes1: ld a,c cp 248 jr nc,endPrintAttributes1 ;check TO see IF we are AT Horizontal character 31 - IF so THEN no need TO set adjacent Horizontal Attribute AND 7 jr z, endPrintAttributes1 ;and don't set the adjacent Horizontal Attribute if there's no need to inc l ld (hl),e dec l ;incREMent the Attribute address - set the adjacent horizontal Attribute - THEN set the Attribute Address back endPrintAttributes1: ; ld a,b cp 184 jp nc, HRPrintEnd ;check TO see IF we are AT Vertical character 23 - IF so THEN no need TO set adjacent Vertical Attribute & EXIT routine AND 7 jp z, HRPrintEnd ;and don't set the adjacent Vertical Attribute if there's no need to & Exit routine ld a,l add a,32 ld l,a ld a,d adc a,h ld h,a ld (hl),e ;set the Attribute address TO the line below - AND set the adjacent Vertical Attribute ; ;drop through now into adjacent Horizontal Attribute subroutine - all RETs will now EXIT the routine completely ; HRPrintAttribute2: ld a,c cp 248 jp nc, HRPrintEnd ;check TO see IF we are AT Horizontal character 31 - IF so THEN no need TO set adjacent Horizontal Attribute AND 7 jp z, HRPrintEnd ;and don't set the adjacent Horizontal Attribute if there's no need to inc l ld (hl),e dec l ;incREMent the Attribute address - set the adjacent horizontal Attribute - THEN set the Attribute Address back ;ret jp HRPrintEnd #include once "Screentables.asm" #include once "RotateTables.asm" HRPrintEnd: END ASM END SUB
EXAMPLE OF USE
CLS DIM x,y,x2,y2 AS UBYTE DIM xd,yd AS FIXED DIM counter AS UINTEGER DIM time,endtime AS ULONG x=100 y=10 x2=x y2=y xd=2 yd=2 DO x2=x+xd y2=y+yd ' Timing loop to make the sprite update clean on the screen. ' Instead of a waste of time loop here, you could go off and do something for the equivalent time span of the loop. and then come back here to update the sprites. ' You could call subroutines to update numbers in memory, play some sound for a while, see if a key is pressed...all sorts of things! ' The point is you need to do a halt, and then get to the sprite update bit a little while later - after the electron beam has moved off the screen. ' This version below clearly wastes over 130,000 T states per frame. ASM halt halt halt push hl ;11 push af ; 11 ld hl,5000 ;10 quickloop: dec hl ;6 ld a,l ;4 OR h ;4 jr nz, quickloop ; 12 (usually - one iteration of 7) pop af ; 10 pop hl ;10 END ASM HRPrintFast(x,y,32,56,0) HRPrintFast(x+8,y,32,56,0) HRPrintFast(x,y+8,32,56,0) HRPrintFast(x+8,y+8,32,56,0) HRPrintFast(x2,y2,@gentle,76,0) HRPrintFast(x2+8,y2,@gentle+8,76,1) HRPrintFast(x2,y2+8,@gentle+16,76,0) HRPrintFast(x2+8,y2+8,@gentle+24,76,1) x=x2 y=y2 IF x<=0 OR x>=245 THEN xd=-xd : END IF IF y<=0 OR y>=175 THEN yd=-yd : END IF LOOP END gentle: ASM defb 15,15,15,15,15,15,13,15 defb 240,144,208,208,240,240,176,240 defb 15,14,63,0,0,12,26,30 defb 176,112,252,0,0,24,104,120 END ASM