# ZX BASIC:FUNCTION

# FUNCTION

ZX Basic allows function and subroutines declarations. This feature is new to ZX Basic. Sinclair BASIC allowed limited function definitions using **DEF FN**.

A function is a subroutine (like GO SUB) that is invoked directly. The subroutine returns a value than can be used later. BASIC language already has some predefined functions, like **SIN**, **COS**, **PEEK** or **LEN**. The user is now allowed to define his/her own functions.

## Syntax

Basic function declaration is:

FUNCTION<function name>[(<paramlist>)] [AS<type>]<sentences>...END FUNCTION

## Example

A simple function declaration:

span style="color: #808080;"> REM 'This function receives and returns a byte FUNCTION PlusOne(x AS Byte) AS Byte RETURN x + 1 END FUNCTION REM 'Using the function PRINT x; " plus one is "; PlusOne(x)

If **AS** *<type>* is omitted, the function is supposed to return a **FLOAT**.

span style="color: #808080;"> REM 'This function returns a float number because its type has been omitted. REM 'Also, the x parameter will be converted to float, REM 'because it's type has been omitted too FUNCTION Square(x) RETURN x^2 END FUNCTION REM 'Using the function PRINT "Square of "; x; " is "; Square(x)

## Recursion

Recursion is a programming technique in which a function calls itself. A classical recursion example is the factorial function:

FUNCTION Factorial(x) IF x < 2 THEN RETURN x: END IF RETURN Factorial(x - 1) * x END FUNCTION

However, not using types explicitly might have a negative impact on performance. Better redefine it using data types. Factorial is usually defined on unsigned integers and also returns an unsigned integer. Also, keep in mind that factorial numbers tends to *grow up very quickly* (e.g. Factorial of 10 is 3628800), so ULONG type (32 bits unsigned) seems to be the most suitable for this function.

This version is faster (just the 1st line is changed):

FUNCTION Factorial(x AS Ulong) AS Ulong IF x < 2 THEN RETURN x: END IF RETURN Factorial(x - 1) * x END FUNCTION

## Memory Optimization

If you invoke zxbasic using -O1 (or higher) optimization flag the compiler will detect and ignore unused functions (thus saving memory space). It will also issue a warning (perhaps you forgot to call it?), that can be ignored.